Type of Fields

Basic Types

boolean:

A boolean (true, false).

Syntax:

fields.boolean('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),
integer:

An integer.

Syntax:

fields.integer('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),
float:

A floating point number.

Syntax:

fields.float('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),

Note

The optional parameter digits defines the precision and scale of the number. The scale being the number of digits after the decimal point whereas the precision is the total number of significant digits in the number (before and after the decimal point). If the parameter digits is not present, the number will be a double precision floating point number. Warning: these floating-point numbers are inexact (not any value can be converted to its binary representation) and this can lead to rounding errors. You should always use the digits parameter for monetary amounts.

Example:

'rate': fields.float(
    'Relative Change rate',
    digits=(12,6) [,
    Optional Parameters]),
char:

A string of limited length. The required size parameter determines its size.

Syntax:

fields.char(
        'Field Name',
        size=n [,
        Optional Parameters]), # where ''n'' is an integer.

Example:

'city' : fields.char('City Name', size=30, required=True),
text:

A text field with no limit in length.

Syntax:

fields.text('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),
date:

A date.

Syntax:

fields.date('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),
datetime:

Allows to store a date and the time of day in the same field.

Syntax:

fields.datetime('Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),
binary:

A binary chain

selection:

A field which allows the user to make a selection between various predefined values.

Syntax:

fields.selection((('n','Unconfirmed'), ('c','Confirmed')),
                   'Field Name' [, Optional Parameters]),

Note

Format of the selection parameter: tuple of tuples of strings of the form:

(('key_or_value', 'string_to_display'), ... )

Note

You can specify a function that will return the tuple. Example

def _get_selection(self, cursor, user_id, context=None):
    return (
       ('choice1', 'This is the choice 1'),
       ('choice2', 'This is the choice 2'))

_columns = {
   'sel' : fields.selection(
       _get_selection,
       'What do you want ?')
}

Example

Using relation fields many2one with selection. In fields definitions add:

...,
'my_field': fields.many2one(
        'mymodule.relation.model',
        'Title',
        selection=_sel_func),
...,

And then define the _sel_func like this (but before the fields definitions):

def _sel_func(self, cr, uid, context=None):
    obj = self.pool.get('mymodule.relation.model')
    ids = obj.search(cr, uid, [])
    res = obj.read(cr, uid, ids, ['name', 'id'], context)
    res = [(r['id'], r['name']) for r in res]
    return res

Relational Types

one2one:

A one2one field expresses a one:to:one relation between two objects. It is deprecated. Use many2one instead.

Syntax:

fields.one2one('other.object.name', 'Field Name')
many2one:

Associates this object to a parent object via this Field. For example Department an Employee belongs to would Many to one. i.e Many employees will belong to a Department

Syntax:

fields.many2one(
        'other.object.name',
        'Field Name',
        optional parameters)

Optional parameters:

  • ondelete: What should happen when the resource this field points to is deleted.
    • Predefined value: "cascade", "set null", "restrict", "no action", "set default"

    • Default value: "set null"

  • required: True

  • readonly: True

  • select: True - (creates an index on the Foreign Key field)

Example

'commercial': fields.many2one(
        'res.users',
        'Commercial',
        ondelete='cascade'),
one2many:

TODO

Syntax:

fields.one2many(
        'other.object.name',
        'Field relation id',
        'Fieldname',
        optional parameter)
Optional parameters:
  • invisible: True/False

  • states: ?

  • readonly: True/False

Example

'address': fields.one2many(
        'res.partner.address',
        'partner_id',
        'Contacts'),
many2many:

TODO

Syntax:

fields.many2many('other.object.name',
                 'relation object',
                 'actual.object.id',
                 'other.object.id',
                 'Field Name')
Where:
  • other.object.name is the other object which belongs to the relation

  • relation object is the table that makes the link

  • actual.object.id and other.object.id are the fields' names used in the relation table

Example:

'category_ids':
   fields.many2many(
    'res.partner.category',
    'res_partner_category_rel',
    'partner_id',
    'category_id',
    'Categories'),

To make it bidirectional (= create a field in the other object):

class other_object_name2(osv.osv):
    _inherit = 'other.object.name'
    _columns = {
        'other_fields': fields.many2many(
            'actual.object.name',
            'relation object',
            'actual.object.id',
            'other.object.id',
            'Other Field Name'),
    }
other_object_name2()

Example:

class res_partner_category2(osv.osv):
    _inherit = 'res.partner.category'
    _columns = {
        'partner_ids': fields.many2many(
            'res.partner',
            'res_partner_category_rel',
            'category_id',
            'partner_id',
            'Partners'),
    }
res_partner_category2()
related:

Sometimes you need to refer to the relation of a relation. For example, supposing you have objects: City -> State -> Country, and you need to refer to the Country from a City, you can define a field as below in the City object:

'country_id': fields.related(
    'state_id',
    'country_id',
    type="many2one",
    relation="res.country",
    string="Country",
    store=False)
Where:
  • The first set of parameters are the chain of reference fields to follow, with the desired field at the end.

  • type is the type of that desired field.

  • Use relation if the desired field is still some kind of reference. relation is the table to look up that reference in.

Functional Fields

A functional field is a field whose value is calculated by a function (rather than being stored in the database).

Parameters:

fnct, arg=None, fnct_inv=None, fnct_inv_arg=None, type="float",
    fnct_search=None, obj=None, method=False, store=False, multi=False

where

  • fnct is the function or method that will compute the field value. It must have been declared before declaring the functional field.

  • fnct_inv is the function or method that will allow writing values in that field.

  • type is the field type name returned by the function. It can be any field type name except function.

  • fnct_search allows you to define the searching behaviour on that field.

  • method whether the field is computed by a method (of an object) or a global function

  • store If you want to store field in database or not. Default is False.

  • multi is a group name. All fields with the same multi parameter will be calculated in a single function call.

fnct parameter

If method is True, the signature of the method must be:

def fnct(self, cr, uid, ids, field_name, arg, context):

otherwise (if it is a global function), its signature must be:

def fnct(cr, table, ids, field_name, arg, context):

Either way, it must return a dictionary of values of the form {id'_1_': value'_1_', id'_2_': value'_2_',...}.

The values of the returned dictionary must be of the type specified by the type argument in the field declaration.

If multi is set, then field_name is replaced by field_names: a list of the field names that should be calculated. Each value in the returned dictionary is also a dictionary from field name to value. For example, if the fields 'name', and 'age' are both based on the vital_statistics function, then the return value of vital_statistics might look like this when ids is [1, 2, 5]:

{
    1: {'name': 'Bob', 'age': 23},
    2: {'name': 'Sally', 'age', 19},
    5: {'name': 'Ed', 'age': 62}
}

fnct_inv parameter

If method is true, the signature of the method must be:

def fnct(self, cr, uid, ids, field_name, field_value, arg, context):

otherwise (if it is a global function), it should be:

def fnct(cr, table, ids, field_name, field_value, arg, context):

fnct_search parameter

If method is true, the signature of the method must be:

def fnct(self, cr, uid, obj, name, args, context):

otherwise (if it is a global function), it should be:

def fnct(cr, uid, obj, name, args, context):

The return value is a list containing 3-part tuples which are used in search function:

return [('id','in',[1,3,5])]

obj is the same as self, and name receives the field name. args is a list of 3-part tuples containing search criteria for this field, although the search function may be called separately for each tuple.

Example

Suppose we create a contract object which is :

class hr_contract(osv.osv):
    _name = 'hr.contract'
    _description = 'Contract'
    _columns = {
        'name' : fields.char('Contract Name', size=30, required=True),
        'employee_id' : fields.many2one('hr.employee', 'Employee', required=True),
        'function' : fields.many2one('res.partner.function', 'Function'),
    }
hr_contract()

If we want to add a field that retrieves the function of an employee by looking its current contract, we use a functional field. The object hr_employee is inherited this way:

class hr_employee(osv.osv):
    _name = "hr.employee"
    _description = "Employee"
    _inherit = "hr.employee"
    _columns = {
        'contract_ids' : fields.one2many('hr.contract', 'employee_id', 'Contracts'),
        'function' : fields.function(
            _get_cur_function_id,
            type='many2one',
            obj="res.partner.function",
            method=True,
            string='Contract Function'),
    }
hr_employee()

Note

three points

  • type ='many2one' is because the function field must create a many2one field; function is declared as a many2one in hr_contract also.

  • obj ="res.partner.function" is used to specify that the object to use for the many2one field is res.partner.function.

  • We called our method _get_cur_function_id because its role is to return a dictionary whose keys are ids of employees, and whose corresponding values are ids of the function of those employees. The code of this method is:

def _get_cur_function_id(self, cr, uid, ids, field_name, arg, context):
    for i in ids:
        #get the id of the current function of the employee of identifier "i"
        sql_req= """
        SELECT f.id AS func_id
        FROM hr_contract c
          LEFT JOIN res_partner_function f ON (f.id = c.function)
        WHERE
          (c.employee_id = %d)
        """ % (i,)

        cr.execute(sql_req)
        sql_res = cr.dictfetchone()

        if sql_res: #The employee has one associated contract
            res[i] = sql_res['func_id']
        else:
            #res[i] must be set to False and not to None because of XML:RPC
            # "cannot marshal None unless allow_none is enabled"
            res[i] = False
    return res

The id of the function is retrieved using a SQL query. Note that if the query returns no result, the value of sql_res['func_id'] will be None. We force the False value in this case value because XML:RPC (communication between the server and the client) doesn't allow to transmit this value.

store Parameter

It will calculate the field and store the result in the table. The field will be recalculated when certain fields are changed on other objects. It uses the following syntax:

store = {
    'object_name': (
            function_name,
            ['field_name1', 'field_name2'],
            priority)
}

It will call function function_name when any changes are written to fields in the list ['field1','field2'] on object 'object_name'. The function should have the following signature:

def function_name(self, cr, uid, ids, context=None):

Where ids will be the ids of records in the other object's table that have changed values in the watched fields. The function should return a list of ids of records in its own table that should have the field recalculated. That list will be sent as a parameter for the main function of the field.

Here's an example from the membership module:

'membership_state':
    fields.function(
        _membership_state,
        method=True,
        string='Current membership state',
        type='selection',
        selection=STATE,
        store={
            'account.invoice': (_get_invoice_partner, ['state'], 10),
            'membership.membership_line': (_get_partner_id,['state'], 10),
            'res.partner': (
                lambda self, cr, uid, ids, c={}: ids,
                ['free_member'],
                10)
        }),

Property Fields

Declaring a property

A property is a special field: fields.property.

class res_partner(osv.osv):
    _name = "res.partner"
    _inherit = "res.partner"
    _columns = {
                'property_product_pricelist':
                                            fields.property(
                                'product.pricelist',
                        type='many2one',
                        relation='product.pricelist',
                        string="Sale Pricelist",
                                method=True,
                                view_load=True,
                                group_name="Pricelists Properties"),
    }

Then you have to create the default value in a .XML file for this property:

<record model="ir.property" id="property_product_pricelist">
    <field name="name">property_product_pricelist</field>
    <field name="fields_id" search="[('model','=','res.partner'),
      ('name','=','property_product_pricelist')]"/>
    <field name="value" eval="'product.pricelist,'+str(list0)"/>
</record>

Tip

if the default value points to a resource from another module, you can use the ref function like this:

<field name="value" eval="'product.pricelist,'+str(ref('module.data_id'))"/>

Putting properties in forms

To add properties in forms, just put the <properties/> tag in your form. This will automatically add all properties fields that are related to this object. The system will add properties depending on your rights. (some people will be able to change a specific property, others won't).

Properties are displayed by section, depending on the group_name attribute. (It is rendered in the client like a separator tag).

How does this work ?

The fields.property class inherits from fields.function and overrides the read and write method. The type of this field is many2one, so in the form a property is represented like a many2one function.

But the value of a property is stored in the ir.property class/table as a complete record. The stored value is a field of type reference (not many2one) because each property may point to a different object. If you edit properties values (from the administration menu), these are represented like a field of type reference.

When you read a property, the program gives you the property attached to the instance of object you are reading. If this object has no value, the system will give you the default property.

The definition of a property is stored in the ir.model.fields class like any other fields. In the definition of the property, you can add groups that are allowed to change to property.

Using properties or normal fields

When you want to add a new feature, you will have to choose to implement it as a property or as normal field. Use a normal field when you inherit from an object and want to extend this object. Use a property when the new feature is not related to the object but to an external concept.

Here are a few tips to help you choose between a normal field or a property:

Normal fields extend the object, adding more features or data.

A property is a concept that is attached to an object and have special features:

  • Different value for the same property depending on the company

  • Rights management per field

  • It's a link between resources (many2one)

Example 1: Account Receivable

The default "Account Receivable" for a specific partner is implemented as a property because:

  • This is a concept related to the account chart and not to the partner, so it is an account property that is visible on a partner form. Rights have to be managed on this fields for accountants, these are not the same rights that are applied to partner objects. So you have specific rights just for this field of the partner form: only accountants may change the account receivable of a partner.

  • This is a multi-company field: the same partner may have different account receivable values depending on the company the user belongs to. In a multi-company system, there is one account chart per company. The account receivable of a partner depends on the company it placed the sale order.

  • The default account receivable is the same for all partners and is configured from the general property menu (in administration).

Note

One interesting thing is that properties avoid "spaghetti" code. The account module depends on the partner (base) module. But you can install the partner (base) module without the accounting module. If you add a field that points to an account in the partner object, both objects will depend on each other. It's much more difficult to maintain and code (for instance, try to remove a table when both tables are pointing to each others.)

Example 2: Product Times

The product expiry module implements all delays related to products: removal date, product usetime, ... This module is very useful for food industries.

This module inherits from the product.product object and adds new fields to it:

class product_product(osv.osv):

    _inherit = 'product.product'
    _name = 'product.product'
    _columns = {

        'life_time': fields.integer('Product lifetime'),
        'use_time': fields.integer('Product usetime'),
        'removal_time': fields.integer('Product removal time'),
        'alert_time': fields.integer('Product alert time'),
        }

product_product()

This module adds simple fields to the product.product object. We did not use properties because:

  • We extend a product, the life_time field is a concept related to a product, not to another object.

  • We do not need a right management per field, the different delays are managed by the same people that manage all products.